Additionally, children are more likely to select friends who have similar interests and values, which are rooted primarily in early family experiences. The developmental tasks most important to children change as they mature.
Encyclopedia of Parenting: Theory and Research - Google книги
For example, an important developmental issue for an infant is attachment, whereas a salient task for a toddler is individuation. Parenting is at its greatest level of intensity during infancy and toddlerhood. Caregivers decide, for example, whether an infant is held, talked to, or ignored and in what kinds of activities the toddler will engage. Because of the enormous flexibility of the human nervous system during the early years, this period offers unparalleled opportunities for learning and development, which are best supported by an enriched but not pressured environment.
Like compounding interest, the investment that warm, engaged, and sensitive caregivers make during the early years pays huge dividends toward a secure, self-confident child. In the first few months of life, parenting focuses on the provision of basic care, ideally from a warm and responsive caregiver. In the second year of life, the utterly dependent infant becomes the passionately autonomous toddler, inviting increasing opportunities for discipline. Early and middle childhood bring new challenges as children move farther out into the world.
School adjustment and peer relationships become central, and here too children benefit from parents who are involved and supportive.
This period was once also characterized by a severing of ties between parents and their children. Contemporary studies, however, show that adolescents benefit from maintaining close and connected relationships with their parents even as they move toward greater independence. The American psychiatrist Lynn Ponton, a specialist in adolescent development, noted that risk taking is a normal part of the important exploration in which teens engage.
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Life Span: Parenting
Please re-enter recipient e-mail address es. You may send this item to up to five recipients. The name field is required. Please enter your name. Expanding our understanding of how responsive parenting looks and works across different family and child characteristics would add to the development of a more highly specified model of responsive parenting. Finally, determination of what supports need to be in place to assist parents with their attempts to be responsive could enhance the effectiveness of responsive parent interventions.
As both normal and high-risk children benefited from responsiveness that provided affective-emotional and cognitively responsive support, the effectiveness of responsiveness seems best understood when it is defined as a broad construct. There are many new research avenues that need to be explored and questions addressed in recent studies that require further examination.
https://hukusyuu.com/profile/2020-01-16/bnd-telefonueberwachung.php Synthesis of relevant research should guide new investments in parent programs and the development of research initiatives concerning responsive parenting. Developmental science is frequently not well integrated into policy or program application. When new investments are made in publicly funded services for children and families, there is often a greater emphasis on accountability.
This should serve to encourage a greater consideration of research-based evidence that can better assure program effectiveness. Landry SH. The role of parents in early childhood learning. Tremblay RE, topic ed. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development [online]. Updated December Accessed September 28, Skip to main content. Parenting skills The child-parent relationship has a major influence on most aspects of child development. Back to recent texts The role of parents in early childhood learning.
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PDF version. Problem Despite the central role for responsive parenting in different research frameworks, much of what we know about this parenting style comes from descriptive studies. Can interventions targeting responsive parenting work for different types of high risk parents? Do increases in the various aspects of responsiveness explain the positive changes in different aspects of cognitive and social development? Is parental responsiveness equally effective, or does its effectiveness vary for children with varying characteristics e.
Maternal responsiveness and cognitive development in children. Maternal responsiveness: Characteristics and consequences. Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the Strange Situation.
Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; Impact of parental discipline methods on the child's internalization of values: A reconceptualization of current points of view. Developmental Psychology ;30 1 Rogoff B. Apprenticeship in Thinking.